Increasingly present in the civil construction sector, mainly due to its ability to solve problems such as design management and compatibility between them.
A pioneer in the use of BIM in Brazil (with the BR 116 design), Sondotécnica can create, through BIM-based software, a detailed 3D model of the work, much more detailed and close to the final result than 2D prototypes or even models that only have mere visual data in 3D.
BIM technology is based on 3 main pillars:
- Multi-informational modeling: inclusion of all possible types and formats of information to make the design as complete as it can be.
- Interoperability: is what allows software from different manufacturers to “talk” to each other using a common, open language..
- Productive Chain: each element of the chain will have repercussions on the next element. After all, modeling focuses on the entire process, not just parts of it.
BIM is a model with many layers of information, organized in a systematic way, so that they can be accessed at the right time and in the right way, from design to retrofit or demolition.
The application of BIM can start in the design and planning of the design. Modeling the design at the beginning of the activities improves the accuracy of the documentation. With the model created, it improves designs team communication, enables faster decisions, and increases designs effectiveness.
In planning, it identifies the schedule sequence or possible problems of each phase. It allows you to visualize the sequence of construction work, equipment, and progress against established logistics and schedules.
During construction, BIM allows you to identify access and exit roads, routes for materials and machinery to and from the site. You can see work in real time, faster resource flow, and better site management.
After construction, it helps in the maintenance of the building and its facilities, proactively maintaining them and allowing scheduled maintenance with the provision of maintenance history and identification of the most vulnerable points.
Therefore BIM is much broader than 3D visualization or software, it is a new concept for civil construction, which adds empowerment to the designs and facilitates the entire flow of execution and management of the work.
BIM is a virtual construction of the work, done in an integrated and collaborative way with the pertinent construction information, during its entire life cycle
Thus, all the processes of a construction site occur in an integrated way, enabling the resolution of problems in an agile manner, optimizing work time, and resulting in greater assertiveness in the stages.
In BIM, you can include data in the design such as materials, costs, manufacturers, and other properties that will be useful for the construction process.
Instead of having to deal with giant manual spreadsheets, the use of the BIM concept allows information to be extracted simply and can be updated without too much difficulty. Having more accurate quantity information on hand makes the construction process less susceptible to waste of materials
Thus, the professionals involved in the design (engineers, architects, budgeters, among others) can access and edit the information simultaneously, saving time and avoiding communication problems that lead to errors, waste and delays in the works.
Among the main advantages of BIM are:
- Fully integrated design;
- Better quality, more consistent and more accurate documentation;
- Design consolidated in the model, the design documents (drawing) represent the model;
- Less rework on site with the integration and compatibility of disciplines;
- Simulation of the construction phases of the design.
There are several benefits to adopting the BIM concept in design, but communication or information exchange between all agents involved in the construction is certainly the main gain.
With more information and details from the beginning, it is possible to make a complete planning that is closer to reality, including predicting how the thermoacoustic and structural performance of the building will be.
Through graphic programming, it is possible to visualize how the building will be in a certain period of time.
In addition, monitoring the quality of the construction in its various stages becomes more efficient, since it is possible to verify in real time the information contained in the designs.
Cloud storage allows the visualization, editing, and integration of all construction data to be much more efficient, since it can be accessed from anywhere and by all professionals involved.
Among the values added in BIM are:
- Higher quality in the design;
- Greater accuracy in cost estimates;
- Better planning of the work;
- Savings throughout the life cycle of the designs;
- Better visualization of the designs (3D Model);
- Contains much more information in the model than in the 2D set of drawings.
BIM terminology uses as its main reference its level of development, as can be seen below:
2D –Representation or Documentation
Consists of preliminary and feasibility studies
– Cross sections
3D – Parametric Model
Three-dimensional (3D) representation of the modeled elements in the BIM life cycle.
– Three-dimensional model
– MEP System and Structural Analysis
– Interference analysis
– Precious Quantity
4D – Work execution time and planning
BIM 4D intelligently links between 3D BIM components related to the Schedule (“time” of the construction).
– Construction Sequence
– Simulation of the construction phases
– Virtual validation
5D – Budget
BIM 5D links the components of 3D BIM related to Cost (“budgeting”).
– Cost Estimation
– Virtual financial simulation
– Manufacturing models
6D – Sustainability
BIM 6D links the components of 3D BIM to the Energy Efficiency (“sustainability”) of the building model.
– Energy Analyses
– LEED Certification
7D – Maintenance and Operation
BIM 7D is the association of BIM components with a focus on Construction Management and Maintenance.
– Post-construction management
– BIM as Built
– Maintenance plans
LOD (Level of Development) is the level of development of the model
It is a classification created by the AIA (American Institute of Architecture) to organize the stages of designs development and its phases in BIM.
The more advanced the LOD, the more information is involved in the model of the work.
LOD seeks to answer some questions, such as:
– Which data can be passed on to other stages and which must be replaced?
– What is needed for construction collaboration and what is needed for facilities management?
– What are the criteria for geometric content and model information for each discipline at each level?
According to the AIA, the levels are divided into:
Includes conceptual model, definition of parameters with area, height, volume and location (conceptual design)
Includes model with general representation of the elements, roughly defining size, quantity, and shape (preliminary design)
Includes accurate modeling and production of the assembly and construction documents with precise quantities (basic design)
The elements are detailed at the interface level with the other systems and construction elements (pre-executive design)
The design elements are modeled and detailed for the purpose of manufacturing assemblies (executive design)
The elements are detailed and documented for guidance and maintenance purposes